Pug (Mops)

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black, silver, apricot, fawn
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Pros Cons
  • forms strong bonds with its master
  • gets on well with children
  • gets on well with all animals
  • compact
  • friendly
  • willful
  • prone to obesity
  • breath problems          
  • sheds a lot

The Pug is small, stumpy and very compact breed. The peculiarity of this dog is its face that is round and flat and is covered with strongly marked wrinkles. Another feature is the Pug’s large dark eyes. This cheerful, amicable and modest breed will be an excellent companion and a faithful friend for both big families with children and lonely elderly people. The Pug can feel comfortable in a small flat in the city and in a countryside too.

The Pug is a very ancient breed and its origins can be traced back to China before 400 BC. These dogs were kept in luxury at court of the Chinese Emperors and even had their own servants. They were known as the Lo-Sze. Tibetan monks kept them as companions.

Then the Pug was brought in Japan. Afterwards these dogs appeared in Europe, where they acquired wide popularity among aristocracy and kings. Thanks to the fact that at the end of XVI century China expanded trade with European countries, Pugs found themselves in Europe. It were the traders from Holland who brought this breed to their country via the Dutch East India Company and named it Mopshond (translated as «grumbling dog» from Dutch), because of its snoring and snuffing.

But the breed had various names in different countries. For instance, the Italians called it Cagnolino, in German it was known as Mops, in France the dog was named Carlin and the Spaniards called it Doguillo. As for the name «Pug», there is a version that it descends from the Latin word «pugnus» that means «fist» because the dog’s muzzle resembles a little a man’s fist.

You will be surprised, but this toy breed is considered to be a miniaturized version of mastiff-type breed and seems to be closer related to wolf than other larger breed like the German Shepherd.

The Pug became a companion animal for many European royal families. For example, Dutch royalty even proclaimed the Pug the official dog of the House of Orange as once in 1572 the dog rescued the Prince William II having alerted him about Spaniards’ approach.

In XVII century Pugs were widespread in France. Josephine, wife of Napoleon Bonaparte had the Pug named Fortune. During her imprisonment Josephine had used her pet to deliver secret messages to her family concealing them under Fortune’s collar.

In 1860 the British captured the Imperial Palace of China and Pugs were brought again in a great amount to Europe. In 1885 the Pug was recognized by the American Kennel Club (AKC).


The Pug is a sensitive, vivacious and cheerful dog. This breed is loving towards its family and becomes very much attached to its masters. That is why it is better not to leave your Pug alone for a long time. It will suffer and will be depressed because of the separation with its master.

This breed is pugnacious, independent and possesses a strong character always knowing what it really needs. However, the Pug is neither aggressive nor suspicious in a company of strangers and won’t be a good guard dog. In fact, your dog will happily welcome any guest, but it still makes a good watchdog.

The Pug will be a good choice for children of all ages and will even enjoy the rough play, but remember to teach your child to treat a dog carefully, especially its eyes. Among toy breeds, the Pug is the best one for children and will become a great friend for a child.

The Pug gets on well with other different pets including dogs. This breed is not really dominant or aggressive. Your can keep your Pug will another small dog or another Pug, but a bigger dog can injure this small breed. This dog has a very low prey drive and a socialized Pug will even accept cats and other animals.

Health Problems

The most common health problems for the Pug are:
• obesity;
• respiratory problems;
• Pug Dog encephalitis;
• epilepsy;
• nerve degeneration;
• eye infections;
• ear infections;
• allergies;
• demodicosis;
• staph infection;
• yeast infection;
• canine hip dysplasia;
• legg-perthes disease;
• vaccination sensitivity.

In spite of its short hair the Pug shed extremely much. It is necessary to brush a pet regularly. Bathe the dog as required. It is very important to clean its wrinkles every day with a wet cotton pad.

You need also to check and clean your pet’s eyes and ears gently and carefully. As the Pug’s nails don’t grind off it is essential to trim them regularly. Brush dog’s teeth with a soft toothbrush to prevent any mouth diseases.

Moreover it is imperative not to overcool your pet and also not to let the dog’s overheating since the Pug is sensitive to drop of temperature and must be kept at comfortable conditions.

The Pug is very smart, but can be stubborn and willful. Therefore, this breed is not very easy to train. It will learn all commands easily and quickly, but sometimes may be naughty and obstinate.

This sensitive dog cannot bear harshness and correction. So you must be attentive, show respect and tolerance. Use positive training methods like treats, rewards and praise. However, be ready that this independent-thinker will weigh all pros and cons before taking a treat and performing a trick or command.

Socialization will be very easy with this friendly and communicative breed. Your Pug will very quickly become a well-mannered and polite dog. Another advantage of this breed comparing to other toys is that it’s much easier to housebreak.

The Pug does not require a lot of exercises every day. Nevertheless you should provide your dog with a 20 to 40 minutes walk daily. This breed will enjoy a play with its master or other dog, but an adult Pug will mostly sleep. This low-energetic dog suits well for an apartment and for not very active families.