Advantages and drawbacks of purebred dogs
A purebred dog usually refers to the representatives of a modern breed with pedigree documents registered in the stud book. They may be registered with any breed club and can also be a part of a national kennel club.
A pedigreed or purebred dog is a dog, which has been bred over many generations to get a true breed. This means that every born puppy will have the same appearance, character, and traits as the others. In most cases, there is a written standard, which breeders should be strictly followed for.
The main advantage when buying a purebred dog is that you know what you are getting. You are aware of how big your puppy will grow and which type of care it will mainly need. You know the dog’s abilities, if it will develop agility, speed, or whether the dog is meant for hunting, search and rescue, work in police, cattle (or reindeer) flock guarding, or it is simply a companion dog.
The mature appearance and behavior of purebred puppies may be more predictable than that of mixed-breed dogs. Purebred dogs have genetic changes occur in a narrow genetic pool, and any proficient breeder will give you a fair evaluation what type of progeny the dogs’ couple will give. Some dog owners believe the value of pedigree dogs is a symbol of the host status and therefore do not see any benefit in mixed breeds.
However, in pure breeds the deliberate breeding of dogs of a similar appearance over several generations produces animals, carrying a lot of the same genes (alleles), which are partly detrimental.
If the original number of dogs - breed founders was small, the genetic diversity of this particular breed will remain limited for a long time. In fact, when humans set off for some new breeds of dogs they artificially isolate their group of genes and subsequently produce only more copies of the same gene in contrast to what might happen in nature. Initially, the population might be very fragile due to the lack of genetic diversity.
However, if the particular dog breed is very popular and the line goes on over hundreds of years the diversity will increase due to mutations and random coupling from the outside. As an island with several new species of birds - they will diversify. This is why some of the very "old" breeds are more stable.
The problem occurs when some characteristics found in the breed standard are associated with genetic disorders. Over the time artificial selective force will duplicate this genetic disorder because it is a desirable physical trait.
Populations are particularly vulnerable when the dogs bred in close relationship with each other. Inbreeding among the purebred animals has led to various problems of genetic health not always obvious in a less homogeneous population.
Mixed breed purebred dogs are equally susceptible to the most of non-genetic diseases such as rabies, distemper, trauma, and parasites infections.
Purebred dogs are more likely to inherit certain characteristics, which can then develop into a disability or illness. Canine hip dysplasia is one of them.
Some eye abnormalities, heart diseases, and in some cases deafness have been proven to be merely inherited. Extensive research of such abnormalities has been carried out commonly supported by breed clubs and dogs’ registries. And specialized purebred dog clubs confirmed the information about common genetic defects in their breeds.